Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) is a lifelong, progressive autoimmune disease with heterogeneous signs and symptoms that can threaten patients’ vision and impact quality of life1-3

Identifying and treating TED early can benefit patients and may reduce the impact of the disease, helping avoid potentially permanent eye damage1,4

According to the American and European Thyroid Associations, TED is best evaluated and managed with a multidisciplinary approach between endocrinologists and eye care providers, such as ophthalmologists, specializing in treating the disease5

You may have heard or read that TED is also referred to as Graves’ orbitopathy, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, thyroid-associated orbitopathy, or thyroid ophthalmopathy.6

When TED goes untreated, muscle and fat behind the eye may begin to expand, causing debilitating, pronounced signs and symptoms, including3,4,6,7:

  • Proptosis
  • Diplopia
  • Eyelid retraction
  • Pressure and/or pain behind the eyes
  • Photophobia
  • Dry eyes and grittiness
  • Redness, swelling, and excessive tearing
  • The feeling of something stuck in the eye
  • Inflammation of the caruncle or plica
  • Eyelid erythema
  • Chemosis
  • Spontaneous orbital pain
  • Color vision loss*
  • Vision loss*

*Affects a small subset of TED patients.

Doctor referring a patient to a Thyroid Eye Disease specialist

TED is best evaluated by a TED Specialist and co-managed by a multidisciplinary team.2,5

When is the best time to consult with a TED Specialist? Click here for important information on TED co-management.

Find a TED Specialist

  1. Wang Y, Patel A, Douglas RS. Thyroid Eye Disease: how a novel therapy may change the treatment paradigm. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2019;15:1305-1318.
  2. Bothun ED, Scheurer RA, Harrison AR, Lee MS. Update on Thyroid Eye Disease and management. Clin Ophthalmol. 2009;3:543-551.
  3. Wang Y, Sharma A, Padnick-Silver L, et al. Physician-perceived impact of Thyroid Eye Disease on patient quality of life in the United States. Ophthalmol Ther. 2021;10(1):75-87.
  4. Barrio-Barrio J, Sabater AL, Bonet-Farriol E, Velázquez-Villoria Á, Galofré JC. Graves’ ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO classification, assessment, and management. J Ophthalmol. 2015;2015:249125.
  5. Burch HB, Perros P, Bednarczuk T, et al. Management of Thyroid Eye Disease: a consensus statement by the American Thyroid Association and the European Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2022;32(12):1-32.
  6. Bahn RS. Graves’ ophthalmopathy. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(8):726-738.
  7. Cockerham KP, Padnick-Silver L, Stuertz N, Francis-Sedlak M, Holt RJ. Quality of life in patients with chronic Thyroid Eye Disease in the United States. Ophthalmol Ther. 2021;10(4):975-987.