Pathophysiology Active Vs Inactive TED

TED progression: Active disease is a limited window of opportunity

The course of TED begins with an active disease of worsening inflammation of the orbit, fibrosis, and resulting damage to the surrounding tissues.7 After the inflammation has stabilized, TED becomes inactive, but permanent disfigurement and even vision loss may have already occurred. The irreversible fibrosis that begins while the disease is active is a leading contributor to these lasting sequelae, in addition to edema, increased adipose volume in the orbit, and the resulting pressure on the optic nerve.7

Graves Eye Disease Progression Chart Graves Eye Disease Progression Chart

Once TED is inactive, inflammation has run its course, and fibrosis has already occurred, medical intervention has not been shown to be effective.2,7 Sequelae such as eyelid retraction, strabismus, and proptosis may require multiple surgeries to correct, with varying degrees of success.7,11

Diagnosing active TED icon Diagnosing active TED icon

Early diagnosis of Active TED, timely intervention, and ongoing monitoring are essential to reducing long‑term consequences.7

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